ETIAS is required for non-visa-free third-country nationals (Annex II), with the exception of European micro-states (Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City). ETIAS is also required of family members of EU internal market nationals who do not have a residence card indicating this status. However, family members with such a card, holders of visas, residence permits, small border traffic authorizations, refugees or stateless travel documents issued by a country in the EU internal market, nor crew members or holders of diplomatic or official passports, are not required. In addition, on 30 March 2020, the European Commission published “guidelines on the implementation of temporary limitation of non-essential travel in the EU, on facilitating the transit regime for the return of EU citizens and on the impact on visa policy” to provide “advice and practical instructions”. The guidelines stipulate that Member States can take action (for example. B that foreigners must go through a period of self-isolation upon arrival from an area affected by COVID-19) provided the same requirements are imposed on their own nationals. The guidelines also specify that citizens of European micro-states (Andorra, the Holy See, Monaco and San Marino) are exempt from the temporary restriction on entry of third-country nationals into the European Union and the Schengen area for non-essential travel. In addition, citizens of Serbia, Northern Macedonia, Montenegro and Turkey should be allowed to enter the European Union and the Schengen area if they are stranded abroad to facilitate their return to their country of origin.  Holders of diplomatic and service passports from the countries listed in Schedule II (above) do not require a visa, except because of the COVID-19 pandemic, On 16 March 2020, the European Commission recommended that all EU and Schengen Member States introduce a temporary restriction on the entry of third-country nationals into the Schengen area (i.e. travellers who do not are not EU/EEA/Swiss nationals and family members entitled to free movement) for non-essential travel for an initial period of 30 days (with the possibility of extending this period on the basis of subsequent developments). However, third-country nationals who hold a long-term visa or residence permit or who are members of the EU/EEA/Swiss/Brite family are exempt from this restriction. In addition, third-country nationals who have a basic function or need (such as health workers, transportation personnel, development personnel, military personnel, seasonal agricultural workers) who travel “for compelling family reasons” and those who “need international protection or other humanitarian reasons” are excluded from this restriction. Nevertheless, the European Commission reaffirmed that “coordinated and strengthened health checks” should be carried out on all travellers allowed to enter the EU and the Schengen area.
 All EU Member States (except Ireland) and Schengen apply this travel restriction.  In 2018, the EU adopted regulations establishing a visa-free electronic visitor accreditation system called the European Travel Information and Authorisation System (ETIAS).  It is similar to other electronic travel authorization systems in place by Australia, the United States, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. THE ETIAS travel authorization will be required to travel to the Schengen area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, and the ETIAS visa exemption is expected to come into force at the end of 2022, but the ETIAS travel authorization will not be required until 2023.