The United States and Canada signed a Bilateral Free Trade Agreement (CFTA) on October 3, 1987. The free trade agreement was the first bilateral free trade agreement of economic importance signed by the United States3. The implementation legislation4 was approved by both houses of Congress as the Fast Track Authority – now known as the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) – and signed on September 28, 1988 by President Ronald Reagan. While the free trade agreement sparked a major political debate in the United States, it was a turning point for Canada. The controversy surrounding the proposed free trade agreement led to the so-called “free trade” election in 1988, in which progressive progressive Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, who was negotiating the agreement, defeated Liberal Leader John Turner, who pledged to reject it if elected. After the elections, the free trade agreement was adopted by Parliament in December 1988 and came into force on 1 January 1989 between the two nations. At that time, it was probably the most comprehensive bilateral free trade agreement negotiated at the global level and containing several revolutionary provisions. The agreement on a World Trade Organization (WTO) trade agreement, which will be fully ratified by the Trade Agreement (TFA), could also jeopardize trade facilitation between NAFTA parties. Ninety-eight out of 109 countries have ratified the agreement. From the beginning, critics of NAFTA feared that the agreement would result in a move of U.S. jobs to Mexico, despite additional NAALCs. NAFTA, for example, has affected thousands of U.S.
auto workers in this way. Many companies have relocated their production to Mexico and other countries where labour costs are lower. However, NAFTA may not be the source of these measures. President Donald Trump`s USMCA should allay those concerns. The White House estimates that the USMCA will create 600,000 jobs and increase the economy by $235 billion. Economists generally agreed that the U.S. economy as a whole benefited from NAFTA by increasing trade.   In a 2012 survey by the Global Markets Initiative`s panel of economic experts, 95% of participants said that U.S. citizens benefited on average from NAFTA, while no one said that NAFTA was detrimental to U.S. citizens on average.  A review of the 2001 Journal of Economic Perspectives showed that NAFTA was a net benefit to the United States.
 A 2015 study showed that welfare in the United States increased by 0.08% and intra-block trade in the United States by 41% due to NAFTA tariff reductions.  NAFTA has also created a mechanism between states (Chapter 20) to resolve disputes arising from the agreement.